谷歌今天推出了首個Android P開發者預覽版(也就是所謂的安卓9.0),現在可以在developer.android.com上下載。預覽包括一個更新的SDK,包含Pixel,Pixel XL,Pixel 2,Pixel 2 XL和官方Android模擬器的系統映像。與去年不同,在Android P上沒有用於測試Android Wear的模擬器。

Google已經連續第三年在其I / O開發者大會前的幾個月發佈了第一個Android主要版本的開發者預覽版。 Android N(後稱Android Nougat)和Android O(後稱Android Oreo)的首次開發者預覽分別於2016年3月和2017年3月抵達。去年,谷歌沒有通過Android Beta計劃發佈第一個開發者預覽版,通過它可以通過選定設備上的無線更新獲得早期的Android版本。這與Android P保持一致 – Google僅通過手動下載和Flash進行第一次預覽,強調僅供開發人員使用,不適用於日常或消費者使用。

除此之外,適用相同的規則。 這是Android的下一個版本的早期版本,Android被稱為Android P,直到Google選擇以該字母開頭的名稱。

第一次預覽的目標是讓開發人員儘早使用該版本,以便他們可以探索應用程序的新功能和API,測試兼容性並提供反饋,然後在5月8日至5月的I / O 2018共享更多詳細信息 10.隨後的開發人員預覽版中將發佈更多新功能和功能,並最終將通過Android Beta計划進行註冊。

預覽時間表如下

3月:預覽版1(初始版本,alpha)
5月:預覽2(增量更新,測試版)
6月:預覽版3(最終API和官方SDK,Play發佈,測試版)
6月:預覽版4(測試發佈候選版)
7月:預覽版5(發佈候選版,用於最終測試)
Q3:AOSP和生態系統的最終版本

如果您想要簡短版本,以下是第一個Android P開發人員預覽的亮點:內置支持顯示剪切(讀取:凹槽),調整後的快速設置面板,帶圓角的通知抽屜,內嵌回復時的通知消息 ,通知中的智能回復,用於指紋驗證的一致UI以及用於限制應用程序在後台可以執行的隱私增強功能。

仍然不滿意? 以下是所有新API和功能的更長版本(還有更多內容,畢竟這只是第一次預覽版):

顯示剪切支持:應用程序現在可充分利用全屏幕內容和API的最新設備屏幕,讓您管理您的內容顯示方式,包括檢查剪切形狀並請求周圍的全屏布局。甚至有一個開發人員選項可以模擬任何設備上的切口。
HDR VP9視頻,HEIF圖像壓縮和媒體API:Android P增加了對HDR VP9 Profile 2的內置支持,因此您可以在支持HDR的設備上從YouTube,Play電影和其他來源為用戶提供支持HDR的電影。 HEIF(heic)圖像編碼已添加到平台,使您可以輕鬆發送和利用來自後端服務器的HEIF圖像。媒體API也正在增強和重構,以便於開發和整合 – 細節將在今年晚些時候發佈。
多攝像頭API:您現在可以同時從兩個或更多物理攝像頭訪問流。該API還允許您調用邏輯或融合的相機流,以便在兩台或更多台相機之間自動切換。相機的其他改進包括新的會話參數,有助於減少初始捕捉期間的延遲,表面共享可讓相機客戶端處理各種使用情況而無需停止和啟動相機流,以及用於基於顯示器的閃光燈支持和訪問OIS的API時間戳用於應用級圖像穩定和特殊效果。
用於位圖和可繪製的ImageDecoder:ImageDecoder(棄用BitmapFactory)允許您從位元組緩衝區,文件或URI創建位圖或繪圖。它比BitmapFactory提供了幾個優勢,包括對精確縮放,對硬件存儲器的單步解碼,對解碼後處理的支持以及對動畫圖像的解碼。
改進的消息通知:新的MessagingStyle通知樣式突出顯示了誰正在發送消息以及如何回復。你可以顯示對話,附上照片和貼紙,甚至建議聰明的回復。
JobScheduler中的數據成本敏感度:JobScheduler現在可以更好地為用戶處理與網絡相關的作業,並與運營商分別提供的網絡狀態信號進行協調。作業可以聲明其估計的數據大小,信號預取以及指定詳細的網絡要求。運營商可以將網絡報告為擁塞或未計量,然後JobScheduler根據網絡狀態管理工作。
使用Wi-Fi RTT的室內定位:支持IEEE 802.11mc WiFi協議的平台 – 也稱為WiFi往返時間(RTT) – 可讓您利用應用中的室內定位。因此,應用程序可以使用RTT API來測量到附近WiFi接入點(AP)的距離。知道與三個或更多AP的距離,可以使用1到2米的精度計算設備位置。

神經網絡API 1.1:支持九個新的操作 – Pad,BatchToSpaceND,SpaceToBatchND,移調,Stripping Slice,Mean,Div,Sub和Squeeze。如果您擁有Pixel 2設備,您將獲得Qualcomm Hexagon HVX驅動程序,並為量化模型加速。
自動填充改進:允許密碼管理員改進Autofill用戶體驗的新API,如更好的數據集過濾,輸入清理和兼容模式。
開放移動API用於NFC支付和安全交易:應用可以使用OMAPI API訪問安全元素(SE),以啟用智能卡支付和其他安全服務。硬件抽象層(HAL)提供了用於枚舉各種安全元素(eSE,UICC和其他)的基礎API。
ART性能:ART對執行配置文件的使用已擴展為優化應用程序並減少已編譯應用程序代碼的內存佔用量。 ART現在使用配置文件信息進行設備上的DEX文件重寫,在一系列流行的應用程序中減少了高達11%。
優化的Kotlin:改進了幾種編譯器優化,特別是那些針對循環的編譯器優化,以提取更好的性能。 Google還在與JetBrains合作優化Kotlin生成的代碼。
電源效率:瞌睡,應用待機和背景限制已經完善,可進一步延長電池壽命。
針對現代Android:Google Play將需要所有應用更新於2018年11月之前針對Android Oreo(targetSdkVersion 26或更高版本),支持2019年地平線上的64位硬件。Android P將在安裝應用程序的目標平台早於Android 4.2(targetSdkVersion小於17),未來的平台版本將繼續增加該下限。
通過公共API提高應用程序兼容性:Google開始通過要求開發者使用公共等價物來限制對選定的非SDK界面的訪問。
應用程序安全性:跨應用程序和設備進行指紋認證的更一致的用戶界面。 Android現在提供了一個標準系統對話框,以提示用戶觸摸指紋傳感器,根據設備管理文本和位置。應用程序可以使用新的FingerprintDialog API觸發系統指紋對話框。 Google還在更改Network Security Configuration的默認設置以阻止所有明文流量。
用戶隱私:從空閑應用程序訪問麥克風,攝像頭和所有SensorManager傳感器將受到限制。當您的應用程序的UID空閑時,麥克風會報告空音頻和傳感器停止報告事件。應用程序使用的攝像頭斷開連接,如果應用程序試圖使用它們,則會產生錯誤。谷歌還將通過客戶端秘密啟用對Android備份的加密。

谷歌正在要求開發人員將他們的應用與Android P兼容,以便他們的用戶在升級時能夠實現無縫過渡。 如果你發現任何錯誤,你可以在這裡舉報

 

英文:

Google today launched the first Android P developer preview, available for download now at developer.android.com. The preview includes an updated SDK with system images for the Pixel, Pixel XL, Pixel 2, Pixel 2 XL, and the official Android Emulator. Unlike last year, there is no emulator for testing Android Wear on Android P.

This is the third year running that Google has released the first developer preview of the next major Android version months before its I/O developer conference. The first developer previews of Android N (later named Android Nougat) and Android O (later named Android Oreo) arrived in March 2016 and March 2017, respectively. Last year, Google did not release the first developer preview via the Android Beta Program, which lets you get early Android builds via over-their-air updates on select devices. This stays the same with Android P — Google is making the first preview available solely by manual download and flash to emphasize it is for developers only and not intended for daily or consumer use.

Other than that, the same rules apply. This is an early look at the next version of Android, which is being referred to as Android P until Google picks a name starting with that letter.

The goal of the first preview is to let developers play with the build early so they can explore new features and APIs for apps, test for compatibility, and give feedback before more details are shared at I/O 2018, scheduled for May 8 to May 10. More new features and capabilities will be released in subsequent developer previews, and eventually enrollments will be taken through the Android Beta Program.

The preview schedule is as follows:

  • March: Preview 1 (initial release, alpha)
  • May: Preview 2 (incremental update, beta)
  • June: Preview 3 (final APIs and official SDK, Play publishing, beta)
  • June: Preview 4 (release candidate for testing)
  • July: Preview 5 (release candidate for final testing)
  • Q3: Final release to AOSP and ecosystem

If you want the short version, here are the highlights for the first Android P developer preview: built-in support for display cutouts (read: notches), a tweaked Quick Settings panel, notification drawer with rounded corners, messages in notifications when replying inline, smart replies in notifications, a consistent UI for fingerprint authentication, and privacy enhancements to limit what apps can do in the background.

Still not satisfied? Here is the longer version of all the new APIs and features (and there is more to come; this is just the first preview, after all):

  • Display cutout support: Apps can now take full advantage of the latest device screens with full-screen content and APIs let you manage how your content is displayed, including checking the cutout shape and requesting full-screen layout around it. There』s even a developer option that simulates a cutout on any device.
  • HDR VP9 Video, HEIF image compression, and Media APIs: Android P adds built-in support for HDR VP9 Profile 2, so you can deliver HDR-enabled movies to your users from YouTube, Play Movies, and other sources on HDR-capable devices. HEIF (heic) images encoding has been added to the platform, making it easy to send and utilize HEIF images from your backend server. The media APIs are also being enhanced and refactored to make them easier to develop and integrate with — details are coming later this year.
  • Multi-camera API: You can now access streams simultaneously from two or more physical cameras. The API also lets you call a logical or fused camera stream that automatically switches between two or more cameras. Other improvements in camera include new Session parameters that help to reduce delays during initial capture, Surface sharing that lets camera clients handle various use-cases without the need to stop and start camera streaming, and APIs for display-based flash support and access to OIS timestamps for app-level image stabilization and special effects.
  • ImageDecoder for bitmaps and drawables: ImageDecoder, which deprecates BitmapFactory, lets you create a bitmap or drawable from a byte buffer, file, or URI. It offers several advantages over BitmapFactory, including support for exact scaling, single-step decoding to hardware memory, support for post-processing in decode, and decoding of animated images.
  • Improved messaging notifications: The new MessagingStyle notification style highlights who is messaging and how you can reply. You can show conversations, attach photos and stickers, and even suggest smart replies.
  • Data cost sensitivity in JobScheduler: JobScheduler now handles network-related jobs better for the user, coordinating with network status signals provided separately by carriers. Jobs can declare their estimated data size, signal prefetching, and specify detailed network requirements. Carriers can report networks as being congested or unmetered and JobScheduler then manages work according to the network status.
  • Indoor positioning with Wi-Fi RTT: Platform support for the IEEE 802.11mc WiFi protocol — also known as WiFi Round-Trip-Time (RTT) — lets you take advantage of indoor positioning in your apps. Apps can thus use RTT APIs to measure the distance to nearby WiFi Access Points (APs). Knowing the distance to three or more APs lets you calculate the device position with an accuracy of 1 to 2 meters.
  • Neural Networks API 1.1: Support for nine new ops — Pad, BatchToSpaceND, SpaceToBatchND, Transpose, Strided Slice, Mean, Div, Sub, and Squeeze. If you have a Pixel 2 device, you』ll get a Qualcomm Hexagon HVX driver with acceleration for quantized models.
  • Autofill improvements: New APIs that allow password managers to improve the Autofill user experience, such as better dataset filtering, input sanitization, and compatibility mode.
  • Open Mobile API for NFC payments and secure transactions: Apps can use the OMAPI API to access secure elements (SE) to enable smart-card payments and other secure services. A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) provides the underlying API for enumerating a variety of Secure Elements (eSE, UICC, and others).
  • ART performance: ART』s use of execution profiles has been expanded to optimize apps and reduce in-memory footprint of compiled app code. ART now uses profile information for on-device rewriting of DEX files, with reductions up to 11 percent across a range of popular apps.
  • Optimized Kotlin: Improved several compiler optimizations, especially those that target loops, to extract better performance. Google is also working with JetBrains to optimize Kotlin』s generated code.
  • Power efficiency: Doze, App Standby, and Background Limits have been refined to further improve battery life.
  • Targeting modern Android: Google Play will require all app updates to target Android Oreo (targetSdkVersion 26 or higher) by November 2018, with support for 64-bit hardware on the horizon for 2019. Android P will warn users with a dialog when they install an app that targets a platform earlier than Android 4.2 (targetSdkVersion less than 17), and future platform versions will continue to increment that lower bound.
  • Improving app compatibility through public APIs: Google is starting to restrict access to selected non-SDK interfaces by asking developers to use the public equivalents instead.
  • Security for apps: A more consistent UI for fingerprint authentication across apps and devices. Android now provides a standard system dialog to prompt the user to touch the fingerprint sensor, managing text and placement as appropriate for the device. Apps can trigger the system fingerprint dialog using a new FingerprintDialog API. Google is also changing the defaults for Network Security Configuration to block all cleartext traffic.
  • Privacy for users: Access to microphone, camera, and all SensorManager sensors from apps that are idle will be restricted. While your app』s UID is idle, the microphone reports empty audio and sensors stop reporting events. Cameras used by your app are disconnected and will generate an error if the app tries to use them. Google will also enable encryption of Android backups with a client-side secret.

Google is asking developers to make their app compatible with Android P so that their users can expect a seamless transition when they upgrade. If you find any bugs, you can report them here.

 

由軟慧人工智能AI編譯自:venturebeat

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